Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Computer network

At present it is increasingly important to have timely information, regardless of where it occurs. Hence the great one

a boom that lately has had the world of communications, in general, and the exchange of data between computers in particular.

Concept and functions of networks

What is a computer network?
A computer network is a group of two or more connected computers that share the resources at a distance, which allow you to obtain information in an easy and always available way.
  • Exchange of information and data
  • Remote instant messaging
  • Work simultaneously of several computers in the same document
  • Only access to centralized information

Different types of networks
A computer network has different types of classification depending on its structure or form of transmission, among the main types of networks, there are the following:

Networks per Scope (explained in the sub-page):
This type of network is named with acronyms according to its coverage area

Networks by connection type:
When we speak of networks by type of connection, the type of network varies depending on whether the data transmission is made by means of guides such as coaxial cable, twisted pair or optical fiber, or non-guided means, such as radio waves, infrared, microwave or other air transmissions.

Networks for functional relationship:
When a client or user requests the information to a server that responds to it is a Client / Server Relationship, however when in this connection a series of nodes operate as equal to each other, without client or servers, we talk about Point-to-Point Connections or P2P.
Networks for Topology:
The topology of a network establishes its classification based on the union structure of the different nodes or connected terminals. In this classification we find networks in bus, ring, star, mesh, tree and mixed networks.

Networks by Directionality:
To the directionality of the data, when a team acts as an issuer in unidirectional form, Simplex is called, if the information is bidirectional but only one transmitting equipment at the same time, it is a Half-Duplex or Semi-duplex network, and if both teams send and receive information simultaneously we talk about a Full Duplex network.
Networks by degree of authentication:
The Private Networks and the Public Access Network, are 2 types of networks classified according to the degree of authentication necessary to connect to it. In this way a private network requires the entry of keys or other means of validation of users, a public access network in turn, allows these users to access it freely.

Networks for the degree of dissemination:
Another classification similar to the network by degree of authentication, corresponds to the network by Degree of Diffusion, being able to be Intranet or Internet. An intranet is a set of teams that share information between previously validated users, on the other hand, the Internet is a worldwide network thanks to the fact that the interconnection of computers work as a unique logical network with languages ​​and domain protocols open and heterogeneous.
Networks for service and function:
Finally, according to Service or Function of the Networks, they can be classified like Commercial, Educational Networks or Networks for the Process of Data.

The elements of a computer network are:

Server: Manages the resources and the flow of information, it offers you resources and services for customers to use them where they need it.
Client or workstation: Computer connected to a network server that requests services and access to network resources (programs, files or peripherals)
Transmission media: Elements that allow the transmission of information between computers on a network. They can be wirelessly or wirelessly.

The network elements are divided into hardware (hardware) and software (software).

The hardware elements are:

MODULE: Device that is responsible for communication between teams through the telephone line, translating digital signals into analogs and vice versa.
ROUTER: A device that is responsible for selecting the route that allows the data to arrive from the source to the destination, even if there is no direct connection.
SWITCH or SWITCH: Device of cross-sectional connectivity that allows the information to reach only its destination.
HUB or CONNECTOR: Device that receives the signal and repeats it so that all the ports or data have access to the data.
REPEATER: Device that allows to reach two sections of network to reach distances great. It receives weak signals and relays them to greater power.
The elements of the software are:

OPERATING NETWORK SYSTEM: ENS (Network Operating System) allows the connection between computers to create, share and support files, regulate the flow of information and provide equipment support (virus detection and security control).

TCP PROTOCOL: (transmission control protocol) divides the information into individual units (packages). Restructure the information by coupling the packages when they reach their destination.

IP PROTOCOL: (Internet protocol) labels the packages in an IP address. Ensures that all packages arrive at their destination.

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